An Incremental Rendering VM


  • HPG '15 Proceedings of the 5th High-Performance Graphics Conference, 51-60
  • Publication Type: Conference Paper with Conference Talk
  • Year: 2015
  • Keywords: optimization, dynamic compilation, virtual machines, Rendering Engine, Incremental Evaluation, Dependency Graph


We introduce an incremental rendering layer on top of standard graphics APIs such as OpenGL or DirectX in the form a virtual machine (VM), which efficiently maintains an optimized, compiled representation of arbitrary high-level scene representations at all times. This includes incremental processing of structural changes such as additions and removals of scene parts, as well as in-place updates of scene data. Our approach achieves a significant framerate increase for typical workloads and reasonable performance for high-frequency changes. Processing is performed in running time O(n), where n is proportional to the size of the change and the optimized representation has no runtime overhead with respect to the underlying graphics API. This is achieved by tracking and applying all changes as incremental updates to appropriate data structures and by adaptively synthesizing a program of abstract machine code. In a final step this abstract program is incrementally mapped to executable machine code - comparable to what just-in-time compilers do. Our main contributions are (i) an abstract interface for rendering and visualization systems enabling incremental evaluation, (ii) adaptively optimized abstract machine code in the context of stateless graphics commands, and (iii) subsequent adaptive compilation to executable machine code including on-the-fly defragmentation.


The competence center VRVis is funded by BMVIT, BMWFJ, and City of Vienna (ZIT) within the scope of COMET - Competence Centers for Excellent Technologies. The program COMET is managed by FFG. This research was also partly funded by project "Replicate" (FFG FIT-IT, project no. 835948).


Paper (Draft): [9 MB]
  This is the authors preprint. The definitive version of the paper is be available at
the ACM Digital Library.


 author = {Haaser, Georg and Steinlechner, Harald and Maierhofer, Stefan and Tobler, Robert F.},
 title = {An Incremental Rendering VM},
 booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th Conference on High-Performance Graphics},
 series = {HPG '15},
 year = {2015},
 isbn = {978-1-4503-3707-6},
 location = {Los Angeles, California},
 pages = {51--60},
 numpages = {10},
 url = {},
 doi = {10.1145/2790060.2790073},
 acmid = {2790073},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {dynamic compilation, optimization, rendering, virtual machines},

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